Pulmonologists diagnose and treat conditions that affect the respiratory system in men and women. They are specifically trained in internal medicine, lungs, and the cardio-pulmonary system (which include the lungs, heart, blood vessels, and all the organs that help a person breathe). The airway includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Pulmonologists have expertise in infectious, structural, inflammatory and neoplastic respiratory disorders. Some of the many conditions that a pulmonologist may treat include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD,) sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, tuberculosis, emphysema, chest infections, and complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).